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Unit Production System of garments manufacturing:
There are so many popular apparel garments production systems, such as
A unit production system (UPS) of garments production is a type of line layout that uses an overhead transporter system to move garment components from work station to work station for assembly. All the parts for a single garment are advanced through the production line together by means of a hanging carrier that travels along an overhead conveyor. The overhead rail garments production system consists of the main conveyor and accumulating rails for each work station of garments. The overhead conveyor operates much like a railroad track. Carriers are moved along the main conveyor and switched to an accumulating rail at the work station where an operation is to be performed. At the completion of an operation the operator presses a button, and the carrier moves on to the next operation.
Most unit production systems of garments production are linked to a computer control center that routes and tracks production and provides up-to-the-minute data for management decisions. The automatic control of work flow sorts work, balances the line, and reduces claims of favoritism in bundle distribution in garments production. Electronic data collection provides payroll and inventory data, immediate tracking of styles, and costing and performance data for prompt decisions.
Processing begins at a staging area in the sewing room of garments. Cut parts for one unit of a single style are grouped and loaded directly from the staging area to a hanging carrier. Loading is carefully planned so minimal handling is required to deliver garment parts in precisely the order and manner that they will be sewn. When possible, garments operations are completed without removing the parts from the carrier. Varied sizes and types of hanging carriers are available for different types of garments products. Automated garments handling replaces the traditional garments production system of bundling, tying and untying, and manually moving garment parts. Unit production systems eliminate most of the lifting and turning needed to handle bundles and garment parts.
The need for bundle tickets and processing operator coupons is also eliminated when an integrated computer system monitors the work of each garments operator. Individual bar codes or electronic devices are embedded in the carriers and read by a bar code scanner at each workstation and control points in garments factory. Any data that are needed for sorting and processing such as style number, color shade, and lot can be included.
Integrated garments production systems have on-line terminals located at each work station to collect data on each operation. Each garment operator may advance completed units, reroute units that need repair or processing to a different station of garments, and check their efficiencies and earnings. Garments operator may signal for more inventory or call for a supervisor if assistance is needed. The terminals at each station enables central control center to track each unit at any given moment and provide garments management with data to make immediate decisions on routing and scheduling.
Garments operators of the UPS control center can determine sequences of orders and colors to keep operators supplied with work and to minimize change in equipment, operations, and thread colors. A unit garments production system can control multiple routes and simultaneous production of multiple styles without restructuring production lines in garments. The control center may perform routing and automatic balancing of work flow, which reduces bottlenecks and work stoppages. Each operator as well as the control center is able to monitor individual work history. Data can be collected on the amount of time an garments operator works, time spent on each individual unit, number of units completed, the operator who worked on each unit, and the piece rate earned for each unit in garments. The system of garments production will calculate the earnings per hour, per day, and the efficiency rate of each garments operator.
Advantages of Unit Production System of garments production:
Benefits of a unit garments production system depend on how a production system is used and the effectiveness of management. Throughput time in the sewing room can be drastically reduced when compared to the progressive bundle system of garments production because works in process levels are reduced. Garments operator productivity increases. Direct labor costs are reduced because of prepositioned parts in the carriers and elimination of bundle processing. Indirect labor costs may be reduced by elimination of bundle handling and requiring fewer supervisors. Quality is improved because of accountability of all garments operators and immediate visibility of problems that are no longer concealed in bundles for extended periods of time. The central control system in garments production makes it possible to immediately track a quality problem to the operator that completed the operation. Other benefits that are realized are improved attendance and employee turnover and reduced space utilization.
Disadvantages Unit Production System of garments production:
Considerations for installing a UPS include costs of buying equipment, cost of installing, specialized training for the production system, and prevention of downtime. Down time is a potential problem with any of the garments production systems, but the low work in process that is maintained makes UPS especially vulnerable.
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