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When warp and weft yarns are interlaced in a fabric they follow a WAVE or CORRUGATED configuration, the plane of the weave being substantially perpendicular to that of the fabric. This WAVINESS OF YARN is called CRIMP of yarn and is expressed quantitatively either as a fraction, c or as a percentage, c per cent:

c = (Ly - Lf)/Lf; and, c per cent = (Ly – Lf) x 100/Lf

Where Ly = the un crimped length of the yarn, and, Lf = its extent in the fabric.

The expression c = (Ly – Lf) / Lf may be written as:

c = Ly / (Lf - 1), from which

(1 + c) = Ly / Lf;

where (1 + c) is called the crimp ratio. It is useful in fabric calculations.

MATH: Calculate the length of warp required to weave 160 yds. of cloth if the warp crimp is 12 percent.

We know,

Lf = 160 yd. and c1 percent = 12; so c1 = 0.12, where c1 is fractional warp crimp, and

Ly = Lf (1 + c) = 160 x 1.12 = 179.2 yd.

So, to prepare 160 yds of fabric 179.2 yds of warp is required.

MATH: What length of cloth can be woven from 800 yds of warp if the crimp is 8 percent?

We know

Ly = 800 Yd., and c1 percent = 8, so c1 = 0.08; where c1 is fractional warp crimp, and

Lf =Ly/(1+c) = 800/1.08 = 740.8 yds.

So, 800 yds. of warp will weave 740.8 yd of cloth.

**CRIMP**

When warp and weft yarns are interlaced in a fabric they follow a WAVE or CORRUGATED configuration, the plane of the weave being substantially perpendicular to that of the fabric. This WAVINESS OF YARN is called CRIMP of yarn and is expressed quantitatively either as a fraction, c or as a percentage, c per cent:

c = (Ly - Lf)/Lf; and, c per cent = (Ly – Lf) x 100/Lf

Where Ly = the un crimped length of the yarn, and, Lf = its extent in the fabric.

The expression c = (Ly – Lf) / Lf may be written as:

c = Ly / (Lf - 1), from which

(1 + c) = Ly / Lf;

where (1 + c) is called the crimp ratio. It is useful in fabric calculations.

MATH: Calculate the length of warp required to weave 160 yds. of cloth if the warp crimp is 12 percent.

We know,

Lf = 160 yd. and c1 percent = 12; so c1 = 0.12, where c1 is fractional warp crimp, and

Ly = Lf (1 + c) = 160 x 1.12 = 179.2 yd.

So, to prepare 160 yds of fabric 179.2 yds of warp is required.

MATH: What length of cloth can be woven from 800 yds of warp if the crimp is 8 percent?

We know

Ly = 800 Yd., and c1 percent = 8, so c1 = 0.08; where c1 is fractional warp crimp, and

Lf =Ly/(1+c) = 800/1.08 = 740.8 yds.

So, 800 yds. of warp will weave 740.8 yd of cloth.

When the shuttle inserts the weft in the open shed, the weft is un crimped, and each pick has a length Ly, which is equal to the width occupied by the warp in the reed. This is called the reed width. When it is beaten up by the reed and incorporated into the cloth at the cloth fell, the weft attempts to crimp under the scissors-like pressure exerted by the warp threads. At this stage, it is prevented from crimping freely by the temples, whose function is to hold out the cloth near the fell to reed width, so as to prevent excessive abrasion of the warp threads near each selvedge by the reed. As the cloth moves forward towards the breast beam, it leaves the temples and is free to contract to a length Lf, called loom-state width. The weft is now crimped. We have three variables, i) reed width, ii) the width of the loom-state cloth, and iii) the weft crimp in the loom-state cloth. If we know two of these variables, the third can be calculated as illustrated by the following examples.

MATH: Calculate the reed width required to give a cloth with a loom-state width of 38”, if the weft crimp in the loom-state cloth is known to be 6 percent.

We know

Lf = 38”, and c2 percent = 6; so c2 = 0.06, where c2 weft crimp, and

Ly = Lf (1 + c) = 38 x 1.06 = 40.28”

which is the required reed width.

MATH: Calculate the loom-state cloth width if the reed width is 60”, and the weft crimp is known to be 9 percent.

We know

Ly = 60” and c2 percent = 9; so c2 = 0.09, where c2 is weft crimp, and

Lf = Ly/ (1+c) = 60/1.09 = 55.05”

which is loom-state cloth width.

MATH: Calculate the weft crimp in the loom-state cloth if the reed width is 44” and the loom-state cloth width is 40”.

We know

Ly = 44”, and Lf = 40”.

Therefore (1+c) = Ly/Lf = 44/40 = 1.10, so c2 = 0.10 and c2 percent = 10

which is the weft crimp.

In any of the above examples we could substitute the width of the finished cloth for that of the loom-state cloth, provided that we also substitute the weft crimp in the finished cloth for that of the in the loom-state cloth. The calculation would be valid, if no unrecoverable shrinkage had occurred during finishing, but not, for example for a milled woolen cloth.

a) RESISTANCE TO ABRASION: With the increase of crimp %, the abrasion resistance will also increase

b) SHRINKAGE: With the increase of crimp %, shrinkage of fabric will decrease.

c) FABRIC BEHAVIOUR DURING TENSILETESTING: With the increase of crimp%, breaking load of fabric will also increase.

d) FABRIC COSTING: With the increase of crimp%, fabric costing will also increase. Because crimp decrease the length of yarn as a result more yarn will be needed for fabric manufacture in case of more crimp on yarn.

e) FAULTS IN FABRIC: If there is variation of crimp in the threads then the following faults may be found in fabric; A) Reduction in strength may occur, and B) Stripes will be seen in yarn dyed cotton fabric.

f) FABRIC DESIGN: To achieve satisfactory appearance and required shape in finished fabric control of crimp in warp and weft yarn is necessary..

g) FABRIC STIFFNESS: If crimp is increased then stiffness of fabric will decrease.

h) ABSORBENCY: With the increase of crimp % absorbency of the fabric will increase.

i) DIMENSIONAL STABILITY: Dimensional stability will decrease with the increase of crimp%.

j) FABRIC HANDLE: If crimp is increased then the fabric will be soft in handle.

k) DYE TAKE-UP: With the increase of crimp the take-up percentage of dye-uptake will also increase.

MATH: Calculate the reed width required to give a cloth with a loom-state width of 38”, if the weft crimp in the loom-state cloth is known to be 6 percent.

We know

Lf = 38”, and c2 percent = 6; so c2 = 0.06, where c2 weft crimp, and

Ly = Lf (1 + c) = 38 x 1.06 = 40.28”

which is the required reed width.

MATH: Calculate the loom-state cloth width if the reed width is 60”, and the weft crimp is known to be 9 percent.

We know

Ly = 60” and c2 percent = 9; so c2 = 0.09, where c2 is weft crimp, and

Lf = Ly/ (1+c) = 60/1.09 = 55.05”

which is loom-state cloth width.

MATH: Calculate the weft crimp in the loom-state cloth if the reed width is 44” and the loom-state cloth width is 40”.

We know

Ly = 44”, and Lf = 40”.

Therefore (1+c) = Ly/Lf = 44/40 = 1.10, so c2 = 0.10 and c2 percent = 10

which is the weft crimp.

In any of the above examples we could substitute the width of the finished cloth for that of the loom-state cloth, provided that we also substitute the weft crimp in the finished cloth for that of the in the loom-state cloth. The calculation would be valid, if no unrecoverable shrinkage had occurred during finishing, but not, for example for a milled woolen cloth.

**EFFECT OF CRIMP OF YARN ON FABRIC PROPERTIES**a) RESISTANCE TO ABRASION: With the increase of crimp %, the abrasion resistance will also increase

b) SHRINKAGE: With the increase of crimp %, shrinkage of fabric will decrease.

c) FABRIC BEHAVIOUR DURING TENSILETESTING: With the increase of crimp%, breaking load of fabric will also increase.

d) FABRIC COSTING: With the increase of crimp%, fabric costing will also increase. Because crimp decrease the length of yarn as a result more yarn will be needed for fabric manufacture in case of more crimp on yarn.

e) FAULTS IN FABRIC: If there is variation of crimp in the threads then the following faults may be found in fabric; A) Reduction in strength may occur, and B) Stripes will be seen in yarn dyed cotton fabric.

f) FABRIC DESIGN: To achieve satisfactory appearance and required shape in finished fabric control of crimp in warp and weft yarn is necessary..

g) FABRIC STIFFNESS: If crimp is increased then stiffness of fabric will decrease.

h) ABSORBENCY: With the increase of crimp % absorbency of the fabric will increase.

i) DIMENSIONAL STABILITY: Dimensional stability will decrease with the increase of crimp%.

j) FABRIC HANDLE: If crimp is increased then the fabric will be soft in handle.

k) DYE TAKE-UP: With the increase of crimp the take-up percentage of dye-uptake will also increase.

Wish You Good Luck..................................

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