Sunday, September 2, 2012

Textile physics; Introduction to textile physics

Textile physics is very important subject for textile engineers or textile related students. I want to share my experience in this site. I am going to discuss about bellow topics. So be with me for more update.

Why study or learn                                                                                                    
Why study textiles                                                                                                     
Why study textile physics                                                                                          
Textile raw materials                                                                                                  
Classification of fibers                                                                                                                                    
Engineering approach to fibers, yarns and fabrics                                                     
Importance of textile structures for Engineers                                                                      
Physical and Mechanical properties of various fibers                                    
Textile properties developed by drawing                                                                  
Design and other fiber attributes                                                                               
Essential and desirable properties of textile fibers                                                    
Influence of fiber fineness                                                                                         
Miscellaneous properties of fibers                                                                             
Flexural rigidity of textile fibers                                                                                
Fiber migration                                                                                                           
Measurement of fiber migration                                                                                

Definition of yarn                                                                                                      
Factors affecting yarn strength                                                                                  
Parameters affecting physical properties of yarn                                                       
Classification of yarn                                                                                                 
Classification of yarn based on physical and performance characteristics                
Description of yarn                                                                                                    
Idealizes structural diagram of some yarns                                                                
Continuous filament and staple yarn structure                                                          
Fundamental structural features of yarn                                                                    
Yarn designation                                                                                                        
Relative consumption of yarn                                                                                    
Sewing thread                                                                                                            
Thread sizes                                                                                                               
Thread selection                                                                                                         

Importance of twist                                                                                                   
Types and direction of twist                                                                                      
Bedding or nesting                                                                                        
Determination of twist                                                                                               
Twist effects                                                                                                              
Angle of twist and twist factor                                                                                 
Effects of twist on yarn strength, extensibility and luster                                                
Geometry of twisted yarn                                                                                          
Idealized twisted yarn geometry                                                                               
Various comments on idealize yarn geometry                                                           
Yarn size and twist multiplier                                                                                    
Optimum twist factor                                                                                                            
Fiber packing in yarn                                                                                                 
Open packing of yarn                                                                                                
Hexagonal close packing of yarn                                                                               
Real yarn packing                                                                                                      
Concentrating and disturbing factors                                                                                    
Observed packing of fibers in real yarn                                                                     
Twist in relation to yarn bending                                                                               
Relation among twist angle, twist factor and yarn count                                          
Equation for yarn diameter                                                                                        
Equation for specific volume of yarn                                                                        
Show that d=4.44 x 10-6ÖTex / Density                                                                    
Relation among twist, diameter and twist angle                                                       
Estimation of Schwarz’s constant                                                                             
Yarn luster                                                                                                                 
Twist contraction and twist retraction                                                                                   
Limit of twist                                                                                                             
Contraction factor and retraction factor                                                                    
Derivation of expression for prediction of filament strain                                        
Limitations of Platt’s low strain equation                                                                  

Cloth geometry                                                                                                          
Reasons for studying cloth geometry                                                                                    
Weave and weave notation                                                                                        
Warp crimp and weft crimp calculation                                                                     
Crimp percentage and take up percentage                                                                             
Distinction between crimp % (C) and take-up %(T)                                                 
Relationship between crimp (%) and take-up (%)                                                     
Pierce’s Flexible thread model                                                                                   
Importance of crimp on fabric properties                                                                  
Fabric behavior during tensile testing                                                                        
Measurement of crimp                                                                                               
Principles of edged crimped yarn                                                                              
Crimp measuring instrument                                                                                      
Pierce’s  model for plain weave                                                                                 
Equation for pick spacing (P2) and end spacing (P1)                                                
Equation for maximum warp yarn displacement (h1) and weft yarn displacement (h2)         
Dependence of crimp percentage                                                                              
Crimp interchange                                                                                                      
Equation for crimp  interchange                                                                                
Warp and weft yarn jamming                                                                                    
Equation for warp and weft yarn jamming                                                                
Biaxial, tri-axial and balanced structure                                                                    
Equation for rigid thread model                                                                                
Why rigid tread model was introduced                                                                     
Effect of yarn crimp on fabric properties                                                                  
Concept of similar cloth                                                                                             
Cover factor                                                                                                               
Yarn and fabric strength relationship                                                                                    
Handle, drape and shear                                                                                            
Measurement of drape ability                                                                                    
Some tensile properties of fabric                                                                                                                   

Electrical properties of textiles                                                                                  
Dielectric properties of textiles                                                                                  
Polarization and related effects                                                                                 
Power factor and dissipation factor                                                                           
Measurement of dielectric properties                                                                                                                                                                                 
Preparation of a test condenser                                                                                  
Measurement of impedance by Scherring’s bridge and resonance method               
Factors influencing dielectric properties of textiles                                                   
Electrical resistance of textiles                                                                                   
Conductors, semiconductors and insulators                                                              
Conduction of electricity in textiles                                                                          
Influence of dielectric constant on ions                                                                     
Normal, excited and ionized atom                                                                             
Electrical resistance of textiles                                                                                   
Measurement of resistances of textiles                                                                      
Specimen preparation for measuring resistances of textiles                                       
Influence of various factors on resistance of textiles                                                
Static charge                                                                                                              
Explanation of static phenomenon                                                                            
Theories of static charge                                                                                            
Measurement of charge in slivers by Faraday’s cylinder and Medley’s method                     
Generation of static charge in polymers                                                                    
Amphoteric behavior of keratin                                                                                 
Piezo and pyro electric charges                                                                                                                                                       
Leakage of static charges in air                                                                                  
Leakage of static charges in perfect insulators, moderate insulators, & conductors                              
Problems of static charges in textile mills                                                                  
Minimization of static charges in textile mills                                                           
The present view about static charges in textiles      

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