Wednesday, July 6, 2011

WORK STUDY OF APPAREL GARMENTS FACTORY




WORK STUDY
Work study is the analysis of the operations required to produce a style. Effective work study requires both methods analysis and work measurement. Methods are studied, analyzed, and the elements of the method measured in terms of time consumed. Data are collected, analyzed and used to support decisions on rates and methods. Work study is also important to ergonomic decisions, job design, and work station development. Decisions must be based on extensive study and documentation that is developed with work measurement procedures. Unsubstantial opinions are not sufficient justification for change.

OBJECTIVE OF WORK STUDY
- Explain mechanization and automation relative to general- and special-purpose machines
- Examine the basic components of sewing machines and work aids
- discuss the effect of equipment on product quality and performance.

BASIC TERMINOLOGY OF WORK STUDY
Capacity: Productive capability (output) of a plant. Machine or work center in a given period of time.

Created from: machine, time, space, capital, labor
Frequently measured in units of Output (no. of garments)
May be expressed in terms of input (no. of hours)

Maximum Capacity: Total hours available under normal conditions for a given period of time

Efficiency Factor: A factor used to adjust the maximum capacity to a realistic level of potential production capacity.
Efficiency = Standard minutes earned /Actual minutes attended
Realistically 90% is the efficiency factor for all the firms attributed to Down Time, Supervisor, intervention, absenteeism, and other demands in a work day

Down Time: The period of time that a machine is not operational because of setup, making adjustments, maintenance or mechanical failure.

Potential Capacity: Maximum capacity adjusted for efficiency

Committed Capacity: Total of hours previously allocated for production during a given time period, ensures the plant of a continuous flow of work employment. It affects potential start and completion dates of the succeeding orders.

Available Capacity: The difference between Potential Capacity and Committed Capacity for a given period. This is used to estimate deliveries on new orders.

Required Capacity: Standard Allowed Hours/Minutes (SAH’s /SAM’s) necessary to produce a specified volume in a certain period of time.

Excess Capacity: Difference between required capacity and potential capacity.

Work Study can be best expressed in the following manner:

WORK STUDY
   1. METHOD STUDY
       Record to Compare
       Seek best method
   2. WORK MEASUREMENT
       Time Study
       Synthetics

In a crux: “Methods are developed and rate set for each operation”

STEPS INVOLVED:
1. Analyze each style to determine its requirement for production.

2. Style Analysis is based on:
       -Firm’s quality standards
       -Amount of labor required
       -Available equipment
       -Volume to be produced
       -Expected “throughput time”

3. Style requirements are determined through analysis of samples and specifications

4. Apparel Engineers are concerned with:
       -Number, complexity and sequence of Operations
       -Equipment Required
       -Time and Skill Required

5. Operation Breakdown: Work in each style is broken down into operations
An operation B/down is sequential list of all the operations that involved in assembling a garment used to establish the workflow for each style.

6. Apparel engineers study each operation to improve its effectiveness and efficiency and to establish methods to ensure a consistent performance by operators and consistent products.

You should read RELATED POST to learn more.
Wish you good luck..................

4 comments:

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