Tuesday, May 24, 2011

GARMENTS PRODUCTION PROCESSES OF APPAREL FACTORY


Objectives of garments production process:
  -Examine garments production strategies and concepts
  -Explore the relationship among production standards, capacity, and production planning
  -Examine factors that impact productivity and measures of productivity.

The plant and production system create the environment for executing production processes. A process is a procedure required to convert materials into a specific product or style. The type and sequence of garments production processes required for conversion is unique to each style. Use of inputs to the process (including materials, methods, machines, and skills) is determined by the expected output.

Process Analysis and Control:
Process analysis begins with examination of each style to determine its requirements for production. Style requirements are discussed at product planning meetings, determined through analysis of samples and specifications, and evaluated based on a firm’s standard operating procedures and cost constraints. Production skills, production time, equipment needed, and the anticipated volume are evaluated for each style.

The basic breakdown of operations for a style is often identified by technical designers while engineers develop detailed specifications, methods, and production standards necessary for consistently executing the processes. An operation is one of the steps in a process that must be completed to convert materials into a finished garment. An operation breakdown is a sequential list of all the operations involved in cutting, sewing, and finishing a garment, component or style.

Production Standards:
Production Standards are a means of controlling time and labor costs by establishing a reasonable time for completing each operation. They provide a basis for determining whether the actual production time and costs are acceptable. Production standards are used to plan and schedule production, analyze capacity, and serve as performance criteria for workers. Production standards provide management with a numerical base (quantitative base) for making decisions and managing plant production. A production standard reflects the ‘Normal’ time required to complete one operation or cycle using a specified method that will provide the expected quality. In comparing actual performance with a production standard, trouble spots can be identified, productivity evaluated, and adjustments can be made.

Labor Efficiency for production development:

Labor efficiency is ratio of work accomplished versus the work expected to be accomplished. The work accomplished is provided by the operator’s output sheet and the work expected to be accomplished is provided by the production standard.

Labor Performance in production field:
Combining labor efficiency with labor utilization provides the basis for the labor performance report. Labor performance can be loosely translated as labor productivity.

Performance = efficiency x utilization

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