Saturday, May 28, 2011


Batch dyeing of wool with reactive dyes is a very popular process. In batch dyeing process reactive dyes are usually applied to wool at pH 5–6 using ammonium salts, and acetic acid as required. At higher pH values, exhaustion is too low, and at lower values rapid dyes uptake gives unlevel dyeings in batch dyeing process. Slightly higher pH values are used for dyeing paler shades (pH 5.5–6.0) and lower values (pH 5.0–5.5) for deep shades in batch dyeing of wool. Fibre Reactive dyes often give quite good exhaustion at temperatures below the boil but the dyeing temperature will eventually be raised to 100 °C to ensure that reaction with the wool is as complete as possible. Some procedures recommend a holding stage at an intermediate temperature of 65–70 °C for 15–20 min to allow the dye to migrate before it reacts with the wool.
Batch dyeing machine for with reactive dyes.
REACTIVE DYES FOR WOOL FIBRES - Details about wool dyeing,

Because of their tendency to give unlevel, skittery dyeings, reactive dyes are usually applied to wool in the presence of proprietary levelling agents in case of batch dyeing process of wool. These are often amphoteric, having both cationic and anionic groups in the molecule. In contrast to most levelling agents, which decrease the dyeing rate, the auxiliary products for dyeing wool with reactive dyes accelerate dyeing. The anionic dye complexes with the cationic site in the auxiliary product but the remaining anionic site provide substantivity for the wool surface. The bulky dye–auxiliary complex exhausts well onto the fibre surface at relatively low temperature, better than the dye alone, but cannot penetrate into the fibres. The complex breaks down as the dyeing temperature increases so that the smaller liberated dye molecules can then absorb into the wool. The use of such products avoids unlevel, skittery dyeings and provides better compatibility of dye mixtures during the batch dyeing.

Deeply dyed wool fibre or fabric with reactive dyes in batch dyeing process must be aftertreated to remove unfixed dye so as to give the best wet fastness. This is particularly important to ensure that there is no staining of adjacent undyed material during washing. After dyeing of wool with reactive dye, the material can be washed at 80 °C for about 15 min using a dilute ammonia solution at pH 8.0–8.5, and then rinsed in water with a little acetic acid. To avoid any alkali damage to the wool after batch dyeing, washing can be done with hexamine (hexamethylenetetramine from formaldehyde and ammonia) at pH 6.5, or with sodium bicarbonate. Certain proprietary chemicals can be added to the dyebath on completion of dyeing and their hydrolysis increases the bath pH to around 7. For example, hydrolysis of sodium trichloroacetate gives chloroform, carbon dioxide, both of which are volatile, and sodium hydroxide (Scheme 16.6). The actual colour removed may consist of unreacted dye, hydrolysed dye and products of the reaction of the dye with soluble wool hydrolysis products such as ammonia and hydrogen sulphide or amino acids.

Reaction related to dyeing wool with reactive dyes:
CCl3 CO2Na + H2O = HCCl3 + CO2 +NaOH

Shrink-proof wool, which has been treated with resins in the Hercosett process, remains cationic on the surface and gives rapid uptake of reactive dyes. The usual auxiliary levelling agents may be less effective in this case. The deposited resin protects the wool from damage and the best fastness results for deep shades are obtained by dyeing at 110 °C for 30 min.

Wool dyed in deep shades with reactive dyes is better protected from damage during dyeing. A number of explanations for this have been proposed. These involve protein chain crosslinking, reaction with thiol groups that interferes with 357 the reformation of disulphide links, and reaction with non-keratinous proteins in the cell membrane complex and endocuticle. So reactive dye is best for dyeing wool fibre in batch dyeing process but proper care should be taken other wise shade will be uneven.


Vinyl sulphone dyes or Remazol dyes are good quality Reactive dyes 

After Treatment And Stripping of Reactive Dye

Structural discussion of reactive dyes those suitable for cotton fibre

Informative articles on Dye reactivity, Application and Storage of Reactive dyes


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