Textile or Fabric Finishing
The textile finishing is an important process for production of finished textile fabrics and garments. Textile finishing usually includes treatments such as scouring finishing, bleaching finishing, dyeing and/or printing, the final mechanical finishing or chemical finishing operations of textiles, that during this stage are carried out on textile products (staple, sliver or top, yarns or filaments, woven or knitted fabrics to enhance their basic characteristics like dye penetration, printability, wettability, colour, hand, and appearance of textile material.
By special textile finishing, we also mean all the processing operations that, though included in the so called finishing stage, are generally applied to the textile fabrics to improve their appearance, hand and properties, at times in accordance with their field of application.
The textile finishing stage plays a fundamental role in the excellency of the commercial results of textiles, which strictly depend on market requirements that are becoming increasingly stringent and unpredictable, permitting very short response times for textile manufacturers. The latest finishing machines on the market used for textile finishing operations generally offer multi-purpose applications; the flexibility and versatility features of these finishing machines are uninterruptedly evolving to grant excellent consistency of the results in finishing process.
The making of a marketable consumer-usable textile fabric is not completed after fabric formation, dyeing, or printing. Fabrics usually still need to undergo and additional processing know as textile finishing, which is the final processing before the fabric is cut into apparel or made into articles such as towels, curtains, or draperies. Finishing is what makes fabrics more suitable for their intended end use. Final inspection to ascertain fabric quality is performed at the completion of finishing. There are many types of finishes; some make fabrics softer after finishing, some stiffer after finishing, some water-repellent after finishing, and some shrink-resistant after finishing. Some fabrics may have two or more finishing treatments at a time in the finishing machine. Certain finishes are so temporary that they completely lose their effectiveness after one laundering. Therefore, understanding textile finishes and the properties they impart, the fibers and fabrics to which they may be applied, and their limitations and shortcomings is important to an overall understanding of textiles.
Most textiles finishing processing are performed in the same plants as dyeing or printing. Most dyers and printers are also finishers, with finishing being considered a separate but integrated department of the dyeing or printing organization.
Classification of textile Finishes and finishing process:
Textile finishing operations can be carried out by means of discontinuous, continuous and semi continuous systems according to the finishing machine.
Discontinuous or batch-type systems of finishing:
A single or individual finishing machine is used to complete all the finishing stages.After taking all types of preparation the finishing machine is loaded with the textile material. Predetermined cycles are carry out according to the finishing process. After completing the process the machine is unload and finally wash it thoroughly before starting a new cycle. This process is suitable for small batch and the working procedures are most easy and flexible. for example, it is easy to a carry out a bleaching process on a single machine, and then a scouring one followed by a dyeing process. The discontinuous process is labour-intensive for the production of large production because it necessary more man power to handle and transport the textile material; it is also a time oriented process and results that can change from one lot to another.
Continuous systems of finishing:
A series of machines are required for continuous finishing system. Each machine carries out always and solely the same process.According to production requirements each finishing machine are arranged. Initial cost of this system is higher and the machine set up very much complex.but once the system has developed according to proper plane, it requires a smaller manpower and grants excellent repeat ability and high production rates; So it is stat that the continuous system is beneficial for producing large batch of textile material with the highest cost-efficiency and productivity.
Semi-continuous systems of finishing:
Semi continuous finishing system is modern and result oriented method. In this system the continuous finishing machine and discontinuous finishing machines are used for better performance.For explain the procedure it is said that a continuous finishing machine is used to wet the textile material. The machine could be continuous pad batch machine, The small and medium lots are suitable for these mixed systems of finishing. In that process the quality of the product is higher but the cost is medium but more manpower is required.
Textile finishes and finishing are classified in several ways, the most common classifications being aesthetic finishes, which modify the appearance and/or hand or drape of fabrics, and functional finishes, which improve the performance properties of fabrics. The textile finishes discussed in this articles are presented in these two categories.
Finishes are also classified as chemical finishes and mechanical finishes. Those finishing are also called wet finishing and dry finishing, respectively. Wet finishes are normally used to textile material by padding, followed by drying or curing.Mechanical finishing are special types of process used to change change the appearance by changing the surface the fabric or any textile material. It related to specific physical treatment . Finishes are also categorized by their degree of permanence. These finishes are called durable,semi durable temporary and permanent finish. Permanent finishes do not change or alter throughout the life of a textile material. usually involve the change in structure of fibre structure by special chemicals.
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