Monday, January 7, 2013

Selvags, Two edge of woven fabric

Selvage is one of the most important parts of woven fabric. It plays vital roles during weaving. Selvage could be defined as the two end of the woven fabric width or the edge of woven fabric. This is different from main fabric. Most of the selvage made with strong thread like nylon thread. It holds the woven fabric and helps to maintain the shape of fabric. It takes all the pressure of weaving machine and protect the fabric from damage.
Selvags (Selvedges) As the shuttle moves back and forth across the width of the shed, it weaves a self-edge called the selvage, or selvedge, on each side of the woven fabric. The selvage prevents the woven fabric from raveling. 
It is usually made more compact and stronger than the rest of the woven fabric by using more or heavier warp yarns or by using a stronger weave. There are different kinds of selvages. The kind of selvage used depends upon economy of production and the expected use of the woven fabric. 

Plain Selvages 
These selvages are constructed of the simple plain weave with the same size yarn as the rest of the fabric, but with the threads packed more closely together. Such selvages are fairly durable and firm. 

Tape Selvages 
The tape selvages are sometimes constructed with the plain weave but often are made of the basket weave, which makes a flatter edge. Tape selvages are made of heavier yarns or ply yarns, which provide greater strength. 

Split Selvages 
Split selvages are made by weaving a narrow width fabric twice its ordinary width with two selvages in the center. The woven fabric is then cut between the selvages, and the cut edges are finished with a chain stitch or hem. 

Fused Selvages 
These selvages are made on fabrics of thermoplastic fibers, such as nylon, by heating the edges of the fabric. The fibers melt and fuse together, sealing the edges. This technique is sometimes used to split wide fabrics into narrower widths. 

Leno Selvage 
The leno selvage is used on some shuttle less looms as well as weaving machine. The construction utilizes a narrow leno weave, which locks the cut ends along the fabric edge. A loose weave generally requires a tight leno selvage, whereas a light weave may have a leno selvage with less tension. 

Tucked Selvage 
The tucked selvage is a technique used on some shuttle less looms. A device is used to tuck and hold the cut ends into the fabric edge. The construction of the selvage is dependent upon the particular weave and a number of other factors. A formula for weaving the tucked selvage considers fiber density, the diameter of the yarns (which is also affected by twist, ply, and count variation), as well as the yarn diameter balance, or ratio of the diameter of the filling yarn to that of the warp yarn in effect, if the diameter of the filling yarn is finer than the diameter of the warp yarn, fewer fillings can be inserted in themfabric selvage, because the warp intersection requires more space between the fillings than one diameter of the filling.

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