Self twist spinning or Open-End Spinning
Open-end spinning omits the step of forming the roving. Instead, a sliver of textile fibers is fed into the spinning machine spinner by a stream of air. The sliver is delivered to a rotary beater that separates the fibers into a thin stream. It is carried into the rotor by a current of air through a duct and is deposited in a V-shaped groove along the outer edge of the rotor. Twist is provided by the turning of the rotor.
Fibers fed to the rotor are incorporated into the rapidly rotating “open end” of a previously formed yarn that extends out of the delivery tube; hence, the name open- end spinning. As the fibers join the yarn, which is constantly being pulled out of the delivery rube, twist from the movement of the rotor is conveyed to the fibers. A constant stream of new fibers enters the rotor, is distributed in the groove, and is removed at the end of the formed yarn, becoming part of the yarn itself.
The fineness of the yarn is determined by the rate at which it is drawn out of the rotor relative to the rate at which fibers are being fed into the rotor. In other words, if fewer fibers are being fed in while fibers are being withdrawn rapidly, a thinner yarn will result, and vice versa. The twist is determined by the ratio of the rotor turning speed to the linear or withdrawal speed of the yarn (that is, the higher the speed of the rotor, the greater the twist).
Theoretically, a variety of different means may be used to form the yarn and insert twist. These have been divided into the following categories: mechanical spinning (of which rotor spinning is an example), electrostatic spinning, fluid spinning, air spinning, and friction spinning. Of these, only rotor and friction open-end spinning machines have been commercialized and most of the open-end spinning machines now in use are of the mechanical rotor spinning type Friction open-end spinning machines are also available.
Friction spinning systems use friction to insert twist. A mixture of air and fibers is fed to the surface of a moving, perforated drum. Suction holds the fibers against the surface while a second drum rotates in the opposite direction. Twist is inserted and the yarn begins forming as the fibers pass between the two drums. The newly forming yarn is added to the open end of an already formed yarn, and the completed yarn is continuously drawn away.
The advantages of open-end spinning are that it increases the speed of production, eliminates the step of drawing out the roving before spinning, and permits finished yarns to be wound on any sized bobbin or spool. As a result, it is less expensive. It produces yarns of more even diameter than does ring spinning. Yarns are more uniform in diameter, bulkier, rougher, more absorbent, and less variable in strength than are ring-spun yarns.
Fabrics made from open-end spun yarns compared with ring spun yarns are more uniform and more opaque in appearance, lower in strength, less likely to pill, and inferior in crease recovery. A number of sources indicated that they are more subject to abrasion.
Neither friction nor rotor spinning will produce yarns as fine and strong as ring- spun yarns, although recent advances have extended the range of yarn sizes possible. Open-end spun yarns have a handle that has been characterized as “harsh.” Some of the kinds of products that seem to be especially well suited to the use of open-end spun yarns are in filling yarns for fabrics where yarn strength is not a factor, toweling pile yarns, denim, and heavier weights of bed sheeting. The yarns even surface makes them desirable as base fabrics for plastic-coated materials. On the other hand, the more acceptable feel of ring-spun yarns has led knitwear manufacturers to prefer them, and they are better for fine blends of polyester and cotton.