OTHER METHODS OF MANUFACTURING YARNS
In addition to ring and open-end spinning, techniques that insert true twist into yarn, there are other types of yarn construction. Three of those that have some current commercial application are described in the following sections: false-twist, or self-twist, spinning; yarn wrapping; and splitting or slitting films made from synthetic polymers. The viability of these processes for commercial purposes varies.
Air Jet spinning is a ultra modern spinning or yarn manufacturing method The Murata Company, a Japanese firm, has commercialized an air-jet spinning machine that functions as follows. A largely untwisted sliver is fed into the machine. Two nozzles, each forcing an air jet against the sliver from opposite directions, cause fibers from the outer layer of the sliver to wrap around the interior fibers, thereby forming the yarn.
Hollow Spindle Spinning
Hollow spindle spinning is another modern yarn manufacturing process. In hollow spindle spinning, a sliver of core fibers is fed through a hollow spindle where it is wrapped by a filament yarn unwinding from the spindle. An interesting application of the technique has been in the manufacture of towels and other fabrics, in which the wrapped yarns are used in the pile. In this instance, the wrapping yarn is made from soluble polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fibers. After the fabric has been put through the finishing processes, these yarns dissolve, leaving a soft, all-cotton twist less and absorbent yarn in the pile
Core spinning is also a special spinning for yarn manufacturing. Core-spun yarns are usually made with a continuous filament core surrounded by twisted fibers or other yarns. Recently, core spun yarns with a staple core of one fiber and an outer sheath of another fiber have been produced by an adaptation of ring spinning. Two rovings, one of polyester and one of cotton, are fed through drafting rollers and then pass through separate channels before being wound on the spindle. The channel for the cotton sheath is longer, ensuring that it will wrap around the polyester core as the twist is inserted. Fabrics from staple core yarns are more durable and have more easy-care features than those of 100 percent cotton yarns.
Making Yarns from Films
Recently, various new techniques have emerged that allow yarns to be formed directly from synthetic polymers without the formation of fibers or the twisting of fibers into yarns. These processes include the formation of yarns by the split-film and slit-film processes. Slit-film yarns could be classified as monofilaments. Yarns made by the split-film process do not fit neatly into the categories of staple or filament yarns.
In the creation of yarns by the split-film technique, a sheet of polymer is formed. The formed sheet is drawn in the lengthwise direction. Through drawing, the molecules in the polymer are oriented in the direction of the draw, causing the film to be strengthened in the lengthwise direction and weakened in the crosswise direction. This causes a breakdown of the film into a mass of interconnected fibers, most of which are aligned in the direction of the drawing, but some of which also connect in the crosswise direction. The process is known as fibrillation.
The fibrillated materials can be twisted into strings or twines or other coarse, yarn like materials. The usefulness of split-film yarns is limited because the yarns created are coarse. Olefins are made into split-film yarns for use in making bags, sacks, ropes, and other industrial products.
Slit films are made by cutting film into narrow, ribbon like sections. Depending upon the process used for cutting and drawing the film, the tapes may display some degree of fibrillation, like that described for split films. When tapes are made that do not fibrillate, they are flatter and are more suitable for certain uses. Flat tapes are used as warp yarns in weaving and can be made into carpet backings that will be very stable, remaining flat and even. All types of tape yarns are used in making wall coverings, packaging materials, carpet backing, and as a replacement for jute in bags and sacks.
Lurex@, a flat, ribbon like yarn with a metallic appearance, is a slit film yarn that is often used to add decorative touches to apparel or-household textiles. Lurex@ is made from single or multiple layers of polyester film. Multi-layered types are made by placing a layer of aluminum foil between two layers of polyester film.
Monoply types are cut from metallized polyester film, protected by a clear or colored resin coating. The natural color of Lurex@ is silver. Other colors are produced by adding pigments to the lacquer coating or to the bonding adhesive. The width of these yarns ranges from 0.069 to 0.010 inch.
Ply yarns are made from two or more single yarns that are twisted together. Ply yarns are much more expensive than single yarns but are nevertheless often produced to achieve certain benefits. Ply yarns made from identical single yarns are more regular in diameter and are stronger. Ply yarns are often made to achieve particular decorative effects.
In general, the steps involved in creating ply yarns include:
1. Winding single yarns and clearing any flaws.
2. Placing the required number of component yarns alongside each other, in place, ready for supplying to the machine
3. Insertion of twist to form the ply yarn by any of a number of different machines
4. Winding the finished yarn on a cone or package for delivery to the customer
A number of different machines are used in making ply yarns, which may also be referred to as folded yarns. Ring-folding machines, for example, operate on the same principle as ringspinning machines except that instead of a roving being fed to the traveler, the single yarns to be combined are both fed together for twisting.-->