Monday, January 14, 2013

Ring Spinning

Ring Spinning 
The ring spinning could be defined, the process of manufacturing yarn with flying ring.
The ring spinner is made up of the following parts: 
Ring spinning 

1. Spools on which the roving is wound 
2. A series of drafting rollers through which the roving passes 
3. A guiding ring or eyelet 
4. A stationary ring around the spindle 
5. A traveler-a small, V-shaped clip on the ring 
6. A spindle 
7. A bobbin 

The roving is fed from the spool through the drafting rollers. The rollers elongate the roving, which passes through the eyelet, moving down and through the traveler. The traveler moves freely around the stationary ring. The spindle turns the bobbin at a constant speed. This turning of the bobbin and the movement of the traveler impart the twist to the yarn. The yarn is twisted and wound onto a bobbin in one operation. 

Bobbins must be removed from the machine when full. From here, bobbins are transported to a winding machine where yarn is wound onto packages. Automated systems for doffing and winding have been developed and are widely used. Winding is considered an important step. It provides an opportunity to condition yarn that is, to bring the yarn into equilibrium with the moisture in the atmosphere, and to add wax or other coatings that will facilitate weaving. Winding also allows the identification of flaws in the yarn and formation of larger yarn packages than the spindles on the ring spinning frame. 

1. The value and character of a yarn are determined by 
• Kind and quality of fibers 
• Amount of processing necessary to produce fineness. 
• Amount of twist, which increases tensile strength in the finished yarn. 

2. The purpose of the yarn must be anticipated, as this determines the number and kind & many manufacturing operations. 
3. The formation of yarn from staple fibers by shinning becomes possible when they have surfaces capable of cohesiveness. This quality is exemplified by the natural twist of the cotton fibers, which enables them to entwine around each other, the roughness of the linen fibers, which cause them to cling together, and the scale on the surface of the wool fibers, which cause them to graph each other. 
4. Flexibility permits the fibers to be twisted around one another. 
5. Uniformity & staple give yarn a required evenness & improve the quality. 

Yarn Twist due to ring spinning:
The amount of twist is an important factor in finished consumers’ goods. It determines the appearance as well as the durability and serviceability of a fabric. Fine yarns require more twist than coarse yarns. Warp yarns, which are used for the lengthwise threads in woven fabrics, are given more twist than are filling yarns, which are used for the crosswise threads. To retain the twist in the yarns and prevent any tendency to untwist or kink, the yarns are given a twist-setting finish with heat or moisture, depending upon the kind of fiber used. The direction of twist may be observed by holding the yarn in a vertical position. If the spirals conform to the direction of the slope of the central part of the letter S, the yarn has an S twist; if they conform to the slope of the letter Z, the yarn has a Z twist. 

Yarn Count maintain with ring spinning:
In the spinning process, there is always a fixed relation between the weight of the original quantity of fiber and the length of the yarn produced from that amount of raw material. 
This relation indicates the thickness of the yarn. It is determined by the extent of the drawing process and is designated by numbers, which are called the yarn count. 

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) fixed relationship between the weight and length of all yarns: one tex equals 1 gram (g) per kilometer. The greater the weight, the thicker the yarn, and consequently the higher the tex number Because of the speed limitations in ring spinning, researchers concentrated on developing techniques for inserting twist into yarns that would permit more rapid production. A result of this search was the introduction, in the 1960s, of the open-end spinning machine, which operated at higher speeds but produced a yarn with slightly different characteristics than conventional ring-spun yarns with ring spinning.

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