Friday, September 7, 2012

Work measurement; A systematic way of work study

work measurement:
Work study is scientific method which ensure measurement of work content of a job and takes recourse to better method of doing it and thus realizes the best utilization of human machinery and other resource of an organization. Work measurement is very important part of work study and productivity improvemant.
Work measurement used to determine:
- Time required to complete one element of operation or
-Amount of work that can be performed by one operator in a specific segment of Time

Work Measurement Techniques are:
1.) Time Study
2.) Judgment or past experience of the engineer / production manager
3.) Predetermined Time systems
4.) Standard Data
5.) Operator Reporting
6.) Work Sampling

1.) Time Study
Time study is a systematic technique for determining the amount of time required for a qualified, well trained person, working at a normal pace to perform a specific operation. The person conducting the study is a Time Study Analyst But one thing needs to be remembered, and that is that in any situation that requires one person to determine how much work is fair to expect from another person, hard feelings may result. Hence a Time Study Analyst has a task of great responsibility.

2.) Pre-determined Motion Time Systems (PMTS)
Production Standards are established for new styles before the style goes into production The basis is historical data for hundreds of replications of basic motions and elemental times that have been averaged and converted to standard times for a specific motion. The rates are based on the time taken to execute a method. The method of motion sequence is established first, and the time value or rate is identified for the motion specified. Operation specifications identify the specific method that an operator is expected to follow.
GSD, Mod Sew are example of PMTS they identify times values for specific motions required in garment production and are available as computer software that garment manufacturers can purchase.

3.) Judgment
• Time Study may be, time consuming and costly
• For small orders a style may not be in production long enough for Time Study
• This can provide only approximate values

4.) Standard Data (Garment Synthetics)
Firms may also collect their own data for repetitive operations with similar characteristics and develop their own standard data sets for specific operations used in the same way as predetermined motion-time data except that the data sets are specific to the firms quality standards, equipments and procedures.
Standard data may be developed for:
• Operations,
• Components,
• Styles, and
• Used for preliminary costing and design decisions as well as cost estimating.

5.) Operator Reporting
Relates to the volume completed during the time spent. There are no specified methods or output expectation. The amount of work completed in a specific time frame is often inconsistent and may be unreliable. This type of work measurement provides very little information and little incentive for increasing work efficiency.

6.) Work Sampling
It is a work measurement method that is not concerned with how fast a unit is completed but rather which machines are used and activities pursued the job over an established period of time. When production standards are needed for operations that are not highly repetitive, work sampling is a good choice.

 -Determines the activities involved
 -Amount of time spent on the various activities
 -Equipments used.
Thus the managers can estimate the production of time a worker is engaged in work activity. The proportion can then be used as a performance standard.

Wish you good luck...................................

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